As a Chinese student who studies abroad in America, I am really interested in what Tuan talks about. People here in America love to decorate their gardens outside their houses while Chinese do not pay that much attention to things like this because what they value is the environment inside their homes.
Share via Print Anti-satellite missile tests, like this one conducted by the U. Navy in Februaryare part of a worrisome march toward military conflict in outer space. In fact, it cannot be located on any map of Earth, even though it is very easy to find.
About 1, active satellites wreathe the globe in a crowded nest of orbits, providing worldwide communications, GPS navigation, weather forecasting and planetary surveillance. For militaries that rely on some of those satellites for modern warfare, space has become the ultimate high ground, with the U.
Now, as China and Russia aggressively seek to challenge U. And though it might begin in space, such a conflict could easily ignite full-blown war on Earth. Testifying before Congress earlier this year, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper echoed the concerns held by many senior government officials about the growing threat to U.
There are many ways to disable or destroy satellites beyond provocatively blowing them up with missiles. A spacecraft could simply approach a satellite and spray paint over its optics, or manually snap off its communications antennas, or destabilize its orbit.
Fearing Soviet nuclear weapons launched from orbit, the U. After the ban, space-based surveillance became a crucial component of the Cold War, with satellites serving as one part of elaborate early-warning systems on alert for the deployment or launch of ground-based nuclear weapons.
Throughout most of the Cold War, the U. And inthe U. Air Force staged a clear demonstration of its formidable capabilities, when an F fighter jet launched a missile that took out a failing U. Through it all, no full-blown arms race or direct conflicts erupted. Such satellites effectively hover over one spot on the planet, making them sitting ducks.
But because any hostile action against those satellites could easily escalate to a full nuclear exchange on Earth, both superpowers backed down. Low- and high-Earth orbits have become hotbeds of scientific and commercial activity, filled with hundreds upon hundreds of satellites from about 60 different nations.
Space junk is the greatest threat. Satellites race through space at very high velocities, so the quickest, dirtiest way to kill one is to simply launch something into space to get in its way. Even the impact of an object as small and low-tech as a marble can disable or entirely destroy a billion-dollar satellite.
In the risks from debris skyrocketed when China launched a missile that destroyed one of its own weather satellites in low-Earth orbit. That test generated a swarm of long-lived shrapnel that constitutes nearly one-sixth of all the radar-trackable debris in orbit.
That test produced dangerous junk too, though in smaller amounts, and the debris was shorter-lived because it was generated at a much lower altitude.
More recently, China has launched what many experts say are additional tests of ground-based anti-satellite kinetic weapons. None of these subsequent launches have destroyed satellites, but Krepon and other experts say this is because the Chinese are now merely testing to miss, rather than to hit, with the same hostile capability as an end result.
The latest test occurred on July 23 of last year. But one test in May sent a missile soaring as high as 30, kilometers above Earth, approaching the safe haven of strategic geosynchronous satellites.
That was a wake-up call, says Brian Weeden, a security analyst and former Air Force officer who studied and helped publicize the Chinese test. Which is one reason that potential U.
Russia is also developing its own ability to approach, inspect and potentially sabotage or destroy satellites in orbit. Over the past two years, it has included three mysterious payloads in otherwise routine commercial satellite launches, with the latest occurring in March of this year.
Radar observations by the U. Air Force and by amateur hobbyists revealed that after each commercial satellite was deployed, an additional small object flew far away from the jettisoned rocket booster, only to later turn around and fly back.
The objects, dubbed Kosmos, andmight just be part of an innocuous program developing techniques to service and refuel old satellites, Weeden says, though they could also be meant for more sinister intentions.
Treaties offer little assurance Chinese officials maintain that their military activities in space are simply peaceful science experiments, while Russian officials have stayed mostly mum.
Both nations could be seen as simply responding to what they see as the U. For years Russia and China have pushed for the ratification of a legally binding United Nations treaty banning space weapons—a treaty that U.American Space, Chinese Place Yi-Fu Tuan () Go to an American home in exurbia, and almost the first thing you do is drift toward the picture window.
Yi-Fu Tuan in his essay, Americans space, Chinese place, published in The Write Stuff Thinking Through Essays, Canadian Edition, , explain about the/5(1). Yi-Fu Tuan (Traditional Chinese: 段義孚, born 5 December ) is a Chinese-American geographer.
He is one of the key figures in human geography and arguably . Aerospace experts have issued guidance to the public over a Chinese space station that is plummeting towards earth and expected to crash within weeks.
Tiangong-1 has been out of control since The book’s author is the renowned Chinese-American geographer Yi-Fu Tuan, who, among other things, contributed the term topophilia (love of place) to our English technical vocabulary.
Space and Place is a sustained leisurely contemplation of the related concepts of “space” and “place,” which have more or less well-defined emotional. The founders of the Chinese American Community Foundation currently serve on its Board, closely overseeing the strategic direction of the organization and actively building partnerships within the Bay Area Asian-American community.