Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect The consequences of maltreatment can be devastating. For over 30 years, clinicians have described the effects of child abuse and neglect on the physical, psychological, cognitive, and behavioral development of children. Physical consequences range from minor injuries to severe brain damage and even death.
Receive free lesson plans, printables, and worksheets by email: Educational Implications What's All the Hype? Colleen Meade The effect of substance abuse on growing fetuses has been avidly researched in recent years.
The birth of the Thalidomide babies in the early awakened the world to the fact that drugs ingested by the mother can severely impact the development of the growing baby. Thalidomide was widely prescribed to relieve morning sickness in pregnant women. It was the use of Thalidomide that affected "nearly 12, infants in 46 countries" and caused defective "limbs, eyes, ears, genitals, and internal organs" Bethune, The birth of these children soon became known as "history's greatest medical disaster" Bethune, To study the effects of substance abuse, or misuse, during pregnancy, one must determine exactly what substances will be included.
While much uproar has formulated around the use of illegal drugs during pregnancy, one cannot eliminate the effects of legal drugs such as, nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and over-the-counter and prescription medications.
Additionally, in order to determine the long-term effects of substance abuse on children, one must include the study of other environmental issues. The development of children impacted by maternal substance use does "not stem from prenatal exposure alone, but rather are the result of a constellation of biological, psychosocial, and environmental circumstances" Poulsen, While the child has most likely incurred damage due to the intake of substances by the mother, the proper support and assistance will help to further the development of the child to maximize his abilities within the limitations of his condition.
This paper seeks to describe the possible effects of substance abuse in gestation, the environmental effects from typical substance-abusive households, and the implications in the field of education.
It also seeks to outline curricular adaptations, which can be made to appropriately educate children affected by these issues. Substance Abuse and Pregnancy While the specific effects of substances taken during pregnancy are unclear, much recent research has shed light on a number of physical and cognitive abnormalities mainly found in connection with exposure to substances in utero.
The most commonly researched substances are: The fact that there is more information available about the effects of these substances does not mean that they are the only substances that will cause damage to a fetus.
Alcohol is a "teratogenic substance" which, in connection with pregnancy, causes a fetus to be born with a condition termed, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS Hess, Due to the commonalities between signs and symptoms of children affected by FAS, this has received a tremendous amount of attention by researchers because it is more easily detectable than the effects of other drugs on the fetus.
Currently, alcohol abuse during pregnancy hails as "the third leading cause of birth defects Diagnosis of FAS in children is made after "three major clinical manifestations are seen in the patient: The physical signs of FAS are as follows: These physical deficiencies make it difficult to overlook the damage from alcohol on children displaying these characteristics.
While the physical effects of FAS are quite recognizable, it is more difficult to ascertain whether a child has sustained any of the cognitive effects.
It is believed that many children with FAS might also display "hyperactivity, fine and gross motor developmental delays or incoordination, impaired language development, impulsivity, problems with memory, poor judgment, learning problems, distractibility, seizures, and structural abnormalities of the brain or indications of deficient brain growth" Hess, Because there are over chemicals found in a single cigarette, it is difficult to analyze the effects of each specific chemical and easier to analyze the effects of cigarettes in general on a growing fetus.
However, researchers have established that "the majority of the adverse effects are attributable to two main ingredients; nicotine and carbon monoxide" available: One reason for concern regarding the effects of cigarette smoking on pregnancy is that "it is estimated that over 22 million women in this country smoke, and among women of reproductive age, almost one-third are smokers" Available: Smoking during pregnancy causes a variety of problems including: One reason for low birthweight is the belief that infants "do not fully develop" available: It is believed that the problems associated with smoking during pregnancy might affect children later in life.
Cocaine and Crack the freebase form of Cocaine use in the United States has increased in recent years Askin, While the long-term effects of Cocaine exposure in utero have not been conclusively established, many researchers agree that children who were exposed to Cocaine in utero most likely sustained some degree of damage.
The difficulty researchers find with labeling specific problems associated with Cocaine use during pregnancy is the fact that many women abuse more than one drug polydrug use thereby making it difficult to isolate the affects of Cocaine Kandall, MATERNAL SUBSTANCE ABUSE, CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND DRUG ENDANGERED CHILDREN Claire D.
Coles, Ph.D. Effects of Substance Abuse on Special Education Programs Hospital & Health Centers County Welfare Agencies. Physical/ Health/Motor Developmental/ Cognitive.
The Effects of Substance of Abuse on Behavior and Parenting. The Effects of Substances of Abuse on Behavior and Parenting A child's crying, which may be only a mild annoyance to a non-using parent, is magnified in its intensity to the parent on cocaine. The Effects of Substance of Abuse on Behavior and Parenting.
A child's crying, which may be only a mild annoyance to a non-using parent, is magnified in its intensity to the parent on drug.
CPS workers frequently investigate maltreatment reports in . (The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being) is a project of the Administration on Children, Youth and Families to describe the child welfare system and the experiences of children and families who come in contact with the system.
Early life experience programs the brain and body for the environment it encounters: a calm, nurturing upbringing will orient a child to thrive in most conditions, while a stressful, barren one will predispose it to conditions of scarcity, anxiety and chaos.
according to Felitti: what seems to matter most is the cumulative effect of. It is virtually impossible to discuss the long-term effects of substance abuse in gestation on child development without also discussing the environmental factors .